The creation of the universe
Everything from the atom to the universe is comprised of five elements. Both our body and external creations are made up of five elements. Akasha is the base element out of the Pancha Mahabhutas namely Akasha, Vayu, Agni, Jal and Prithvi. Life, objects, earth, sun, moon, stars, planets, and the entire universe are all included in the Akash Tattva. Similarly, other elements are also born from the sky element. The Indian scriptures Vedas, Upanishads, philosophy, and religious texts describe the creation of creator. According to ‘एको ब्रम्ह द्वितीयो नास्ति।‘, the only Brahma tattva was pre-existing. Brahma tattva is monogamous, homogenous, and heterogeneous. At the place of Brahma Tattva, ‘एकोＳहं बाहुश्याम प्रजायेय’ i.e. the desire to become many from the one arose. According to that wish, the celestial element manifested from the Brahma in the form of the sound Omkar. Vayu Tattva was born from Akash Tattva (principle). Tej or fire element born from Vayu. From fire Aap or water was created. The earth element was born from water. From the creation of the earth, the creation of food came from the creation of life. This is how the universe was created.
Modern scientists present the idea of creation with the theory of 'Big Bang Theory'. According to this theory, there was a huge vacuum about 13.8 billion years ago. In that cavity, a huge energy gathered in a god particle (GOD'S particle). After some time, it exploded in less than a moment. In that explosion, sky and time were created. This energy was spreading. It was gradually cooling as it spread. During cooling, the formation of matter started.
It created huge clouds of gas and dust. Due to the force of gravity, these gas and dust particles started to unite. After billions of years the temperature gradually decreased further. The galaxy was born from it. There are many galaxies in the universe. One of them is our galaxy. Her name is The Milky Way. Millions of suns, stars, planets, and satellites formed in each galaxy. Many solar systems were formed in the Milky Way. We live in one of those solar systems.
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The formation of the solar system
There are 8 planets in our solar system. These eight planets revolve around the sun at the center. The first planet is Mercury which is slightly larger than our moon. The second planet from the sun is the hottest planet. The third planet is our Earth. 2/3 of the earth is covered by water. The fourth planet is Mars, which is red in color and has a cold region and is covered with dust. Jupiter is the fifth planet. It is the largest planet in this solar system. Jupiter has 67 moons. The sixth planet is Saturn. The aspects around Saturn are its attributes. The seventh planet in the solar system, Prajapati (Uranus), has 27 moons and 13 aspects. This planet revolves around itself in an almost horizontal position. Varuna (Neptune) is the eighth and last planet in the solar system. Its atmosphere is made up of liquid hydrogen, helium, and hydrocarbons.
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Origin of Earth
Earth originated in the solar system. After the Big Bang, large clouds of dust, hydrogen, helium and other gases formed in the sky. Due to the force of gravity, these came together and began to rotate in a circle. From this a disc-like shape was formed, which gradually took on the shape of planets. Earth was a hot ball of gases in which volcanic eruptions and evaporation of water and gases formed the Earth's atmosphere. With the passage of time, the evaporation of water decreased, and seas and oceans were formed. Then the Earth's magnetic field was created. This magnetic field protected Earth's atmosphere from solar storms. Due to the moisture in the environment, the outer crust of the earth gradually cooled and soil started to form.
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Origin of life
In the case of the origin of life, in Sankhyashastra, Kapil Mahamuni explains the origin of creation, from the eternal principles of Prakriti (mass) and Purusha (consciousness), the origin of Panchavishay, Panchamahabhutas and the creation of creator begins.
The first life forms in the sea. After thousands of years unicellular organisms were created. The increasing amount of oxygen in the atmosphere gradually led to the birth of multicellular organisms. The Earth's environment was constantly changing so that some new species were born, and some species evolved. Over time, the creation of forests began. Gradually, amphibians, reptiles were formed. Birds evolved from reptiles. The flowers are ready. Giant animals like dinosaurs became extinct after a meteorite because they couldn't adapt to the environment, while insects like cockroaches survived by adapting themselves. The creation of advanced humans began.
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Ancient Indian Astrology
In India, the study of astrology began with the objectives of chronology, rain forecasting for agriculture, direction for travel, sacrifices, religion, and deities. The natural dimensions of time were found to be one day for the Earth to complete one revolution around itself, one month for the Moon to complete one revolution around the Earth and one year for the Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun. Thought of Ritu (Season), Ayane. Motion and position of planets, eclipses were observed. Yuga, Mahayuga, Kalpa and Brahma's day were the big dimensions of time that came to be preached.
4,32,00,00,000 human years equal to 1 Brahma day/night is called 1 Kalpa. A kalpa consists of 10,000 parts, called Charana. There is an idea of 4 Charana Satyuga, 3 Charana Treta Yuga, 2 Charana Dwapara Yuga, 1 Charana Kali Yuga.
- 1000 Mahayuga = 1 Kalpa = four billion thirty-two million human years; This is the Astronomical Age of the Sun.
- Brahma 1 day = 2 kalpas ie (one kalpa day + one kalpa night) = 8 billion 64 crore human years.
- 30 Brahma days = 1 Brahma mas (2 trillion 59 billion 20 crore human years)
- 12 Brahma mas = 1 Brahma year (31 trillion 10 billion 4 crore human years)
- 50 Brahma years = 1 Parardha
- 2 Parardha = 100 Brahma Varsha = 1 Mahakalpa (life time of Brahmaji) (31 Shankha 10 trillion 40 billion human years)
12 Rashi (Zodiac) and 27 Nakshatra (Constellation)
Chaitra term became familiar and names of all Nakshatras came in use. The constellation is completely Indian. The earth revolves around the sun but when viewed from the earth it appears that the sun is rotating. This oscillating path of the sun is called the ionic circle. The ionic circle on which the Sun moves is defined as having 12 equal parts, each part being 30 degrees. Each of these parts is called a Rashi. Aries, Taurus, The twelve zodiac signs are Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.
Nakshatra - Moon completes one Earth orbit in about 27.3 days. Each day's journey of the moon is called a Nakshatra (Constellation). 360 degrees divided into 27 equal parts. 1. Ashwini 2. Filling 3. Kritika 4. Rohini 5. Mrigashirsha 6. Ardra 7. Recovery 8. Pushya 9. Ashlesha 10. Magha 11. Purva Falguni 12. North Falguni 13. hand 14 Figure 15. Swati 16. Visakha 18. Anuradha 19. Senior 20 Original 21. Purvashadha 22. Uttarashadha 23. Dhanishta 25. Shatatarka 26. Purva Bhadrapada 27. Uttara Bhadrapada. Nakshatras were named after their shape.
Maharishi Varahamihir in his book Brihatsamhita has explained the methods of predicting weather and rainfall based on Tithi, Nakshatra, Rashi, Graha Yuti. They are still used for agriculture in our country. Sailors use the stars and constellations to determine their direction on a voyage.
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Ancient Indian Scientist
Even in the absence of special micro tools etc. From Common Era 500 to Common Era 1500, Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Munjal, Lall, Shatananda, Bhaskaracharya became great mathematicians and astrologers. Astrology acquired a mathematical form during this period. His contribution is invaluable.
Aryabhata, the first (sixth century) proposed the idea of gravity, the theory that the earth revolves around itself. He wrote the book Aryabhatiya. It provides information on chronology, solstice, distances of planets from the sun, astronomical descriptions, method of predicting eclipses and mean-apparent motion of planets. The value of a day given by Acharya Aryabhatta is 23 hours 56 minutes 41 seconds and the modern value is 23 hours 56 minutes 4.091 seconds. Aryabhata used various instruments to measure the distances of planets and stars in the sky and track their motion. It includes many instruments like bows, bells, cones, shakatyantra, kartariyantra, peethyantra, kapalyantra, shalakyantra.
Varahamihira (sixth century) composed Panchasiddhanta, Brihadjataka, Lagujataka, Vivahpatala, Yogayatra and Brihatsamhita. In his book Brihatsamhita, there is information about the motion and impacts of the planetary positions, impacts of the rise period of Agasti and Saptarshi stars, the overall impacts of the Nakshatras over the countries, Nakshatra Vyuha, meteorites, earthquakes, storms, weather, and formulas for predicting rainfall. He created Karan Granth for the first time. Almanacs were created for chronology. Invented methods of constructing observatories and observatories at low cost. Just like comets are given names today, the names of sages like Uddalak, Kashyapa, Padamketu were given to this comet by Varahamihira.
Munjal (tenth century). His important work is the discovery that Sampata completes its rotation in reverse motion. The ecliptic given by them is 59·9″ which is quite subtle. Lagumanas is his book which includes medium-clear gati-stiti, triprashana, planetary conjunctions, eclipses and sringonnati.
Brahmagupta (seventh century) invented the Turiya yantra for observation. He independently discovered a method to determine the positions of the planets. Planetary transits and 'differentiation' (calculus) are used in this book Brahmasphutasiddhanta. 500 years later, Liebtenik and Newton discovered Varshaman. Khandkhadya contains important rules for calculation of Nakshatradikas. These books have been translated into Arabic.
Lalla (seventh century) Bhaskaracharya used his mathematical treatise Dhivrdhitantra. Ratnakosha is his treatise on Muhurta.
Bhaskaracharya (twelfth century) wrote Siddhantashiromani and Karankutuhal, treatises on astronomical mathematics. In this book Shiromani of Siddhant, the subjects of Astrology, Planetary Mathematics, Mathematics necessary for Panchanga, Description of Trilokyam, Yantraadhyaya, Mathematics, Astronomy and Spherical Trigonometry are mentioned. Bhaskaracharya in Grahaganita Kanda included it in modern science to calculate the current motion of any planets. Bhaskaracharya had the idea of axial rotation and orbital rotation of the earth. Bhaskaracharya proposed the ideas that Rahu-Ketu are not demons and the moon is not self-luminous. Bhaskaracharya developed Ghatikayantra for measuring time, Yashtiyantra to show the position of the sun, Nadiyantra to determine the degree of equatorial position of a star. Udayantar is a new invention made by Bhaskaracharya.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar has done important work on astrophysics, the origin of stellar novae and the chemical composition of stars. Meghnad Saha is famous for his important work in astrophysics for his thermal ionization equation and its use in explaining stellar spectra. Jayant Vishnu Narlikar's work on the power of quasars and the mutual gravitational force between the stars in the universe and the stability of the universe is well known.
Hipparchus B.C 150 years ago, created the first map of the stars. There was a misconception at that time that like the Earth, the Moon, the Sun and the five planets known at that time, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mars and Mercury, were round and they revolved around the Earth in circular orbits.
In Ptolemy's geocentric system, planetary orbits, orbits, etc. Geometrical and arithmetical tools began to understand the concepts of uneven movement of planets, retrogression, their rise and set. It was understood that the shadow of the earth falls on the lunar eclipse and the solar eclipse occurs due to the appearance of the moon and predicting eclipses, It became easy.
Copernicus re-proposed the principle that the earth is not stationary but in motion, which had been previously asserted by Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Aryabhata etc. Instead of considering the earth as the center of the universe, he assumed that the planets Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn all revolved around the sun and that the moon, which showed arts, revolved around the earth. Copernicus believed that day and night and the diurnal rotation of the stars occurred as the Earth revolved around its own polar axis. He showed that the direction of the earth's axis does not change, but as it revolves around the sun, its north or south pole tilts towards the sun and the seasons change accordingly.
Later, Galileo observed mountains, plains and craters on the moon, satellites of Jupiter, artes of Venus, spots on the sun and rotation of the sun etc. with the help of telescope. The discovery confirmed Copernicus' heliocentric theory. Moreover, astronomers began to believe in Copernicus's heliocentric system, seeing that the Protonic planetarium was more accurate than the earlier planets.
Tuco Brae constructed a large quadrant (quadrant) and used it to observe the stars and planets accurately for 21 years continuously. By using them, he improved all the trends. Using his own planetary observations, Kepler discovered his three laws of planetary motion. Rudolphin's planetarium based on Kepler's laws was far more accurate than any previous planetarium.
Newton showed that the reason why the planets revolve around the sun or the moon revolves around the earth is due to the gravitational attraction between them.
Lagrange applied his theoretical method to Jupiter's satellites. Halley made the important discovery that a certain comet reappeared after 55–76 years. The technique of orbit determination was greatly advanced by Laplace and Gauss. A.D. In 1781, Herschel discovered the new planet Uranus with the help of a telescope. The orbit of this planet was determined from their observations. Varuna (Neptune) is the planet discovered by J. G. Galle of Berlin in 1846.
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Equipment and Techniques
Galileo first used telescope for astronomical observation in 1610. Initially, telescopes were based on changes in the direction of light caused by changing the medium of the lens. Newton (1668) built the first reflecting telescope. Principle of Achromatic Lens Telescope J. Discovered by Dolland in 1758. The technique of constructing reflecting telescopes was well advanced by Herschel in the eighteenth century. A telescope of this type with a 200-inch diameter reflector has been in place since 1947 at the Palomar Observatory in California. An even larger telescope (with a reflector about 236 inches in diameter) went into operation in 1976 in the North Caucasus Mountains of Russia.
The Hubble telescope is a telescope launched jointly by NASA and the European Space Agency to observe space. This telescope was released in 1990. It is the largest and most advanced telescope ever launched into space. This telescope was named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. This telescope is one of NASA's major observatory projects. This telescope has taken more than 1.5 million rare pictures of space. Thanks to this telescope we can see the imaginary world beyond the earth.
As the Moon revolves around the Earth, it appears between the Sun and the Earth. It was the union of Moon and Sun. Under favorable conditions, the midpoints of the three spheres, the Moon, the Sun and the Earth, sometimes line up. At such a time, the sun is partially or completely invisible from the earth due to the eclipse of the moon. This invention is called solar eclipse.
Earth appears between Moon and Sun, Earth's shadow falls on Moon. Under favorable conditions, the midpoints of the three spheres, the Moon, the Earth and the Sun, sometimes line up. At such a time, due to the obstruction of the earth, the shadow of the earth falls on the moon and the moon becomes partially or completely invisible. This discovery is called lunar eclipse.
On a full moon day, the full moon is seen as the sun's rays fall on all the Earth-facing surfaces of the moon. On Vadya Ashtami, only half of the Earth side of the Moon is illuminated by the Sun's rays, so the Moon appears penumbral. On Amavasya, the entire part of the moon towards the earth is not visible, so the moon is not visible. On the day of Shuddha Chaturthi, less than half of the moon is illuminated, so only the core of the moon is visible.
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An artificial satellite is any man-made object launched from the earth that orbits the sun, earth and other planets or any of their satellites mainly due to its own gravity. On the contrary, Moon and Mars, Venus etc. An object sent to a planet or the Sun or into deep space for some specific purpose is called a space probe.
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a research center built in space. Its construction started in 1998. The station, launched in 1998 and fully operational by 2011, is the largest space station ever launched. It is bigger than a football field. Sixteen countries from around the world together. This project has been implemented. America, Russia, Japan, Canada and 10 European countries are directly involved in it. It orbits the Earth at a tremendous speed of 27,724 kilometers per hour; That means one round is completed in 91 minutes. It is about 350 km from the Earth's surface. is high. This station is much bigger than any artificial satellite so far. The station is divided into two segments, the Russian and American orbital segments. It accommodates six people at a time. Since November 2, 2000, astronauts have lived in the station for 22 consecutive years and 84 days. ISS is funded till 2024 and is likely to remain operational till 2028.
Humans leaped into space and the issue of space debris arose. Space debris includes old, decommissioned spacecraft, launch vehicle debris, rocket debris, and solid liquid ejected from spacecraft.
Earth's changing environment, weather changes, rain clouds, wildfires, pollution, storms, snow storms can be predicted with the help of weather satellite. Communication satellites are used for television, radio, telephone, internet, and military communication systems. Navigation satellites assist in guiding devices in travel by road, waterways, and air. Space Heroes Satellites that carry other living beings into space are called living satellites. Such satellites are used for space experiments. In the 20th century, satellites began to be used as weapons. Earth-to-space missiles, air-to-air missiles, and sky-to-earth systems were developed.
In our daily life Akash Tattva means the space around us. If the surrounding area is clean and beautiful, then our mind remains happy. As the sky is seen outside, it is also seen inside the body. The zero state of mind is the sky. The space in the body is the sky. If there is a disturbance in the akash tattva, then the peace in the mind starts to collapse, so the person suffers from mental illness, so it is very important to not pollute the akash to get mental peace. Festivals like Makar Sankranti, Rath Saptami, Pongal, Kojagiri Poornima, Navagraha Puja, Akshaya Tritiya etc. in Indian culture are associated with the sky element.
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What can we do?
- Keeping your surroundings clean and free. Going for a walk in the open air. So that the akasha tattva in the body i.e. the mind remains happy.
- Observing the planets and stars in the sky. Our country has a long tradition of astronomy. To continue this studies without harming space. Recording new observations.
- Our ancestors have taught us to be grateful for the sun, stars, moon, constellations and planets in the sky. Let's understand the deeper meaning of the traditional knowledge related to sky element and follow it.