Panch Mahabhoot - Five Elements

Air Gallery

Vayu (Air) element

Vayu (Air) is the second element in the universe and originates from the sky. Vayu(Air) is expressed through touch, and this vayu(Air) can be felt through the skin. Liveliness and movement are signs of Vayu. Circulation, movement, transmission, inhibition, and contraction are the properties.Vayu provides Panchaprana to all living beings. Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udan and Samana are mentioned in the Pancha Prana Shastra of Vayu. Nag, Kurma, Krikal, Devdatta and Dhananjaya are the five Upapranas. Vayu means Vata in the body. Vayu Mahabhuta is responsible for speeding up every activity in the body, movement of bowels in the body, transport of bile and Kapha doshas, and movement of the body from one place to another. The function of mind and intellect is related to the force of Vayu (Air) and Jala (Water) Mahabhutas. All the senses and organs of the body are functioning due to Vayu Mahabhuta. Even in creation, we see that air fills water in clouds. Such rain-filled clouds reach everywhere. Fire is ignited by gas.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Earth in the form of air and origin of air

In the beginning, the Earth was a hot ball made of gas and dust clouds. Volcanic eruptions release carbon dioxide, water vapour, dust, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen into the atmosphere. The Earth's outer crust gradually cooled due to the moisture in the environment. Snow began to accumulate on the Earth. The ice age began.

Over time, as the carbon dioxide in the air increased, the ice began to melt. Seas and oceans were created. Animate creation began. The quantum of gases in the atmosphere started to change. After the formation of trees, the amount of carbon dioxide decreased, and the amount of oxygen increased. The nutrient environment was created for the growth of living organisms.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

हवेचे घटक
  • नायट्रोजन ७८ %

  • ऑक्सिजन २१ %

  • कार्बन डाय ऑक्साइड ०.०३ %

  • आर्गॉन व इतर वायू ०.०९ %

Elements of air

Air is a mixture of various gases. Nitrogen is stable in the air and is essential for soil organisms. Nitrogen is the most critical nutrient in plants. Oxygen is necessary for the respiration of living organisms. Carbon dioxide is used in the food process of plants. Water vapour and other elements (argon, neon, etc.) are in small amounts in the air.

Nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, carbon dioxide 0.03%, argon and other gases 0.09%.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Air layers

There are five layers of air around the Earth: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and Exosphere. These layers are called atmospheres..

हवेचे स्तर
  • Troposphere is the first layer (12-17 km) above the Earth. Almost all the water vapour in the atmosphere is in this layer. The Earth's temperature changes due to the change in this layer.
  • Stratosphere is the second layer (13-50 km). The ozone layer that protects us from the direct UV rays of the sun falls into this layer. The ozone layer helps protect us from high-energy particles in outer space. But now, due to the increase in Earth's temperature, this layer is getting holes.
  • Mesosphere is the third layer (51-80 km). This region is the coldest region of the Earth's atmosphere. Most things from outside the Earth's atmosphere burn up in this layer.
  • Thermosphere is the fourth layer (81-700 km). The temperature here can rise up to 1500°C. The International Space Center is in this layer. Many artificial satellites operate in this layer.
  • The Exosphere is the outermost layer of the atmosphere (701-1000 km). Artificial satellites orbit the Earth in this layer.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Properties of air

  • Air is a mixture of many gases, water vapour and dust particles. Air pressure decreases.

  • Air has mass.

  • Air occupies space.

  • Air is colourless and odourless.

  • Air dissolves in water.

  • Air contracts and expands. Air is invisible. Air will move from an area of high pressure to a place of low pressure.


Importance of air

Respiration- All living things are alive through the process of respiration. Living things take oxygen from the air during respiration and expel carbon dioxide. Humans and other animals breathe through their lungs. Aquatics breathe through the skin. Amphibians breathe through both skin and lungs.

Pollination- Pollen is carried from one plant to another by air currents. Grass and cereal crops, many trees, and about 12% of the world's flowering plants are wind pollinated.

Wind helps disperse the pollen and seeds of many flowers.

Air mixed with the soil promotes root growth. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air to use during photosynthesis. Windmills and sailboats are excellent examples of the use of wind. Birds and insects fly with the help of air.

Harmonium, flute, clarinet, trumpet etc. instruments produce sound through air. Vayu yoga creates many ragas in singing. Vehicle tires contain air. Air speeds up the drying of agricultural products like grains, pulses, fruits etc.

Changes in the air with the temperature

  • As air molecules heat up and start moving faster, they separate. So air, like other substances, expands when heated and contracts when cooled. Because there is more space between the molecules, the air is less dense than the surrounding matter, and hot air floats up.

  • Air pressure can vary with temperature. Warm air rises, resulting in a decrease in pressure. On the other hand, colder air will cause higher air pressure. This is where the terms "low pressure" and "high pressure" come from.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Air pollution

It is the contamination of atmospheric air by any chemical, physical or biological agent. A number of the environment changes in natural characteristics. Domestic combustion, motor vehicles, brick kilns, power generation plants, industrial plants, refinery plants and forest fires are significant causes of air pollution.

Sulfur Dioxide

When coal or kerosene burns, sulfur dioxide is produced. The smoke emitted by cars contains a large amount of sulfur dioxide.

Nitrogen Oxides

When combustion occurs at very high temperatures (1000 degrees Celsius or more), nitrogen in the air burns to form nitrogen oxides. Mainly two-wheeler and four-wheeler engine temperatures are more than 1000, thus causing air pollution due to vehicles.

Ozone (O3)

It is a misconception that ozone is good for the body. The actual need for ozone is in the upper atmosphere. The ozone there protects us from the harmful rays of the sun. But ozone in our immediate atmosphere acts as an aggressive chemical. Nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form ozone, and ozone reacts with nitrogen to form nitrogen oxide.

Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)

Things like petrol that flies while filling up the car at the petrol pump, use of thinner and oil paint while painting the house etc. Increase in the VOC in the atmosphere. Various chemicals and chemical products result in the evaporation of these products, and VOCs are prepared. Some elements are outright hazardous to human health, while others are safe.

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

This gas is very harmful to health and is produced by incomplete combustion. It is emitted from brick kilns, power generation sets, and vehicle engines.


Two types of dust particles enter the body through breathing and non-respirable dust particles. Combustion, construction, various types of factories, various types of agricultural activities, storms etc., are the reasons for the increase in dust in the air.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Global Warming

Global temperature is increasing due to artificial causes. The greenhouse effect (as in the greenhouse) occurs when the amount of carbon dioxide, ozone, dinitrogen oxide, methane and other harmful gases increases in the Earth's atmosphere. Due to these gases, the night temperature does not decrease to some extent. As a result, the global temperature is increasing due to the increasing quantum of gases.

After the Industrial Revolution, coal and oil-based energy use began on a large scale worldwide, and the combustion process started to emit large amounts of carbon dioxide. At the same time, reduced forests contributed to an even more significant increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

For petrol and diesel for vehicles or coal for power generation and many other reasons, we are using a large amount of mineral material, fuming it, and sending carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Due to the world's increasing population, carbon dioxide emission is rising. Methane gas is emitted through animal respiration, carbon dioxide and excreta. The holes growing in the ozone layer and the sun's ultraviolet rays penetrating from it to the Earth are causing an increase in the temperature of the Earth.

तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Effects of pollution


Sulfur dioxide dissolves quickly in water. If the amount of sulfur dioxide in the air is high and it rains during that time, it mixes with water to form sulfuric acid, which is called acid rain. Crops are greatly affected by acid rain. The land becomes acidic and gradually becomes infertile. Cough and cold.

Nitrogen dioxide causes cold, phlegm, dry skin, and itchy eyes. Asthma and fever become standard due to persistent cold after a long time.

When the amount of ozone in the air is high, things like chest congestion occur. Due to continuous exposure to ozone over time, the lungs become weak and diseases like asthma increase.

Instead of oxygen, carbon monoxide is mixed with the haemoglobin that carries oxygen in our blood and reaches all body parts. Low exposure or low levels of carbon monoxide in the air can cause dizziness, headaches, impaired thinking or performance. But this air is highly poisonous and can even cause death if exposed continuously for a few minutes. This can happen in extreme cases.

Snowfall has decreased, and melting has increased following global warming. This melted water mixes with seawater. As a result, the sea level is rising. If the ice in Greenland alone melts, the water level on Earth will increase by 2 to 3 meters. And if all the ice on Antarctica were to melt, the Earth's ocean level would rise by 20 meters, and none of the beaches we see today would exist. Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, New York, Los Angeles and hundreds of other coastal cities will go underwater.

In the past few years, the nature of climate change has been clearly visible, and its effects have been felt by people in many countries. As the seawater temperature increases, the evaporation rate increases, which increases the amount of rain, and the number and intensity of cyclonic storms. The increasing effect of viruses is also a result of temperature rise.


तुम्ही येथे ऑडिओ ऐकू शकता

Measures to reduce air pollution

Reduced use of kerosene in urban areas and desulphurized coal in power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide pollution Solutions include using and purifying the fumes through sulfur scrubbers before releasing them into the air. If these measures are implemented, control of sulfur dioxide and acid rain can undoubtedly be achieved.

Catalytic converters are required in vehicles to reduce nitrogen dioxide. A catalytic converter converts nitrogen dioxide back into oxygen and nitrogen. For this, it is necessary to dispose of old cars which do not have converters. Currently, scientists are working on reducing the amount of nitrogen dioxide by burning at lower temperatures.

If the levels of nitrogen oxides and VOCs remain low, it helps to limit ozone levels. To reduce VOCs in the atmosphere, it is necessary to avoid using outdoor chemicals, use natural water-based paints for buildings and homes, and radically improve the way petrol is filled at petrol pumps.


Growing trees is an important measure to reduce carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere.
Treatment of fumes from industrial plants. Separation of hazardous gases from it and their proper disposal.
Instead of generating electricity from coal, using hydroelectricity, solar energy and windmill projects. Using electric cars instead of diesel and petrol cars. Researching how other fuels can be used in the future. Maximizing the use of solar energy. Alternatives like biogas and solar cooker should be used for cooking.


What can we do?

  • Keeping doors and windows closed in the house increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the house's air. Therefore, the house should be designed so that the air continues to flow in the place.
  • Natural colours should be used when painting the home to reduce the number of VOCs in the home; Avoid using room fresheners and other artificial chemicals.
  • Don't waste electricity. Use the car only when necessary. Using biogas as an alternative to domestic gas.
  • Planting and sustaining as many trees as possible.
  • Do not burn waste.
  • In our Hindu culture, Vayu is worshipped as a deity, and gratitude is expressed for Vayu Tattva. The worship of trees like Banyan (Vad), Pimpal, Audumbar etc., which provide vital air, is mentioned in different vows. Conscious preservation of such trees is a significant measure.